Immunological causes of infertility
Many immunological factors may play a role in the failure of childbearing success. Various autoimmune diseases can cause impregnation disorders and early miscarriage. Diagnostics of these diseases are made difficult by the fact that they often do not cause symptoms, thus their suspicion arises at first when the patient is intent on becoming pregnant. Rheumatologic and immunological examination is recommended in case of multiple abortion and infertility. In 0.5%, immunological problems are the cause of miscarriage.
The immune system changes during pregnancy, the purpose of this physiological change is to protect the foetus: natural killer cells (NK cells) that are part of the natural immune system help the impregnation of the foetus and the formation of the placenta. Since half of the foetus’s genetic material comes from the father, the mother’s immune system can recognize and destroy the foreign protein. This process is further inhibited by regulatory T cells.
Systemic autoimmune diseases can complicate conception, in case of reproductive failure it is worth testing them. During specialist consultation, it is worth finding out the symptom of this or the complaint. It is therefore recommended to perform routine laboratory and antibody tests, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) test, and later the determination of cellular immune status.
When systemic autoimmune disease is confirmed, disease control is the most important, there are good prospects for successful childbearing in case of at least half a year without symptoms. With personalized treatment, the rate of successful pregnancy of APS women increases from 5% to 85%. If definitive systemic autoimmune disease cannot be determined, but the disorder of the immune system’s function can be confirmed, then a treatment for suppressing the activity of the immune system is preferred.
When should you think about rheumatology and immunology check-up?
- in case of repeated spontaneous abortion
- in case of known autoimmune disease
- in case of failed infertility treatments
- in case of positive immune serological results
- in case of persistent inflammation of unknown origin
- in case of risk of thrombosis
If you need a consultation in this regard, book an appointment to Melinda Szabó MD in Swiss Premium Medical Center at Buda! Our customer service is waiting for your call at +36 1 225 0566!