Pituitary gland tumors

Pituitary gland tumors

Pituitary gland tumors

Microadenoma is a small tumor found in 1-4% of the adult female population. Microadenomas are the most common benign tumors of the brain. Symptoms caused by Microadenoma include: thyroid symptoms (over- or underactivity) , infertility, milky nipple discharge not related to pregnancy and some other rare conditions.

Proper function of our body requires perfectly coordinated communication between the cells in our system. The endocrine system is made up of glands that secrete hormones which help control different cells and organs, into the bloodstream or surrounding tissues.

The role of Pituitary gland

The Hypothalamus is a section of the brain responsible for the production of many of the body’s essential hormones. The Hypothalamus controls the Pituitary gland (hypophysis) hormone production. The Pituaitary gland is referred to as the body’s ‘master gland’ because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands. Through production of its hormones, the pituitary gland controls thyroids, adrenal glands, ovaries and testicles.

Pituitary gland is responsible of

  • prolactine, which acts on the breasts to induce milk production
  • growth hormone, which regulates growth, metabolism and body composition
  • ACTH, which stimulates adrenal glands to secrete steroid hormones
  • TSH, which stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones
  • LH and FSH, which act on the ovaries or testicles to stimulate sex hormone production
  • storage of Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during labor and milk secretion
  • ADH, which controls blood pressure and water balance

Tumor in the Pituitary gland

Tumor in the Pituitary gland (Hypophysis gland tumor) is a frequent type of disease that can occur at any age. The frequency of occurence of Pituitary gland tumor can not be defined by age or sex.

Pituitary gland tumors (Hypophysis adenomes) cause hormone disorders. The nature of the cell proliferation (tumor) of hormone secreting cells depends on which part of the gland the tumor is growing.

The Pituitary gland is situated in the bony cavity in the base of the skull. Growing tumor puts pressure on the surrounding cells creating mass effect that disturbs the function of nearby organs, such as oculomotor nerve or brain ventricle or malfunction of the gland itself.

Symptoms of the Pituitary gland tumor (adenome)

Symptoms of the Pituitary gland tumor depend on the state of the tumor. Symptoms include overproduction or underproduction of hormones, vision problems and neurological symptoms.

Symptoms of overproduction of hormones:

Adenome producing prolactine

Pituitary gland tumors Swiss Clinic

  • milky nipple discharge and menstrual irregularity
  • infertility, impotence and testicular atrophy in men

Adenome producing growth hormone

  • gigantism (excessive body size and height)
  • excessive size of hands and feet

Hormonal diabetes
Cushing syndrome
Hormonal overproduction of Thyroid

Symptoms of underproduction of hormones:

neurology examination

  • hormonal underproduction of Thyroid
  • Addison’s disease (adrenocortical insuffiency)
  • menstruation failure, infertility

Symptoms of adenome pressing on optic nerves controlling eye movements, and causing either loss of part or all of a person’s sight, or double vision.

Check-ups for the Pituitary gland tumor

If you have any of these symptoms, or uncomfortable tightness of breasts, strong headaches and vision changes, come and get yourself checked at our clinic by an internist and neurologist specialist to close out serious illness. Early discovery saves lifes!

Diagnostic tests of internist, neurology and ophthalmology might have to be taken as well as CT or MRI tests in order to define the best cure for the condition. Some of the tumors do not require surgery, – treatment with medication is adequate.

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